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CA 500: Foundations of Graduate Study in Communication: APA in Minutes

APA in Minutes

USA Writing Center

If you need help with APA citations, visit the USA Writing Center. Consultations are free. The tutors can go through your paper with you to make sure your citations are correct.

APA Style Guides in the Library

APA Examples - Books

Page numbers refer to the relevant page in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.

Book (p. 203):

Takahashi, S. (2009). The manga guide to statistics. San Francisco, CA: No Starch Press.

Book chapter in an anthology (p. 204):

Vessey, D. (2001). Hey-diddley-ho neighboreenos: Ned Flanders and neighborly love. In W. Irwin, M. T. Conrad,  & A. J. Skoble (Eds.),
     The Simpsons and philosophy (pp. 202-214). Chicago, IL: Open Court.

Article in a reference book (p. 203):

Chapman, R. (2000). GI Joe. In T. Pendergast & S. Pendergast (Eds.), St. James encyclopedia of popular culture (Vol. 2, pp. 229-230).
     Detroit, MI: St. James Press.

APA Examples - Periodicals

Journal article with DOI (p. 198):

Shepherd, L. & Kuczynski, A. (2009). The use of emotive imagery and behavioral techniques for a 10-year-old  boy's nocturnal fear
     of ghosts and zombies. Clinical Case Studies, 8(2), 99-112. doi:10.1177/1534650108329664

Journal article with no DOI listed (p. 199):

  • If article was retrieved from a print journal:

Mabry, R., & Deiermann, P. (2009). Of cheese and crust: A proof of the pizza conjecture and other tasty results.
     American Mathematical Monthly, 116(5), 423-438.

  • If article was retrieved in electronic format:
    • Check CrossRef for DOI
      • If DOI is found, cite using DOI.
      • "If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the home page URL of the journal or of the book or report publisher. If you are accessing the article from a private database, you may need to do a quick web search to locate this URL... In general, it is not necessary to include database information." (pp. 191-192)
        Deno, S. (1985). Curriculum-based measurement: The emerging alternative.
              Exceptional Children,52(3), 219-232. Retrieved from
      • Your instructor may ask you to use a modified version of APA style, in which you include the name of the database instead of the journal home page or cite articles without a DOI in the print journal format. Check your assignment or ask the professor.

Magazine article - accessed online (p. 200):

Kushner, D. (2009, September). Tricked-out golf carts swarm Florida communities. Wired 17(10). Retrieved from

Magazine article - accessed in print (p. 200):

Reyes, P. (2010, August). Paradise swamped: The boom and bust of the middle-class dream. Harper's Magazine, 321(1923), 39-48.

Newspaper article - accessed online (p. 200):

Kepner, T. (2004, October 21). Back from dead, Red Sox bury Yanks and go to series. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Newspaper article - accessed in print (p. 200):

Itzkoff, D. (2010, July 20). Banned TV episode has its day on DVD. The New York Times, pp. C1, C5.

APA Examples - Websites

Entire website (ref.):

To cite an entire website, give the URL of the site in the text of your paper.  It is not necessary to put cite it in the references section. Only include retrieval dates for sites that change frequently, such as wikis.

Example: The APA style website gives examples of references (

Article on a website (ref.):

Welch, C. (2009, September 9). Web goes nuts for 'crasher squirrel.' Retrieved from

Article from an online reference work (p. 205):

Boondoggle. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary. Retrieved from