Primary Sources: A Definition
Primary Sources are materials produced by participants or observers at the time of an event or during a particular span of years.
They are "original" in that the recording of these event or experience originates with the participants or direct observers.
Some examples of Primary Sources:
- Diaries, journals, letters, speeches, correspondence, autobiographies, oral histories, life writings
- Official documents or records from government or private organizations (minutes, reports, etc.)
- Books, magazines, advertisements, journals and newspapers produced at the time of the event or during a span of time in question
- Court decisions, transcripts, and other legal papers
- Research data (reports, market surveys, public opinion polls, statistics)
- Films, photographs, paintings, video recordings, sound recordings
- Novels, poetry, and plays
- Artifacts such as works of art, tools, and weapons
Note: The nature and value of a source cannot be determined without reference to the topic and questions it is meant to answer. The same document may be a primary source in one investigation and secondary in another. The search for primary sources does not, therefore, automatically include or exclude any category of records or documents.
Totally confused? Don't worry, just ask one of your friendly reference librarians!
Check out this handy handout from the University of Calfornia Irvine that helps you analyze primary source content.
It can be tricky...let this helpful website from Yale University give you some tips on determining whether something is or isn't a primary source.
Secondary Sources: A Definition
You may be asking yourself, how are primary sources different than secondary sources. Well, here is your answer!
Secondary sources are materials that interpret, analyze, describe, or explain primary sources. Textbooks, encyclopedias, biographies, scholarly books, and journal articles are examples of common secondary sources. These sources are "secondary" in that usually they are one step removed from the event or time period about which they comment or analyze.
The following video tutorial from the Hartness Library on YouTube offers some good illustrations of the difference between primary and secondary sources. It also includes an overview of how primary and secondary sources can vary based on a research topic.
Primary Source Examples
The Spanish American War in Motion Pictures, Library of Congress
American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Folklore Project, WPA Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1940
Fredrick Douglas Papers, Library of Congress
The WPA Poster Collection, Library of Congress
Poet at Work: Recovered Notebooks, Thomas Biggs Horned Whitman Collection, Library of Congress
Emergence of Advertising in America: 1850-1920, Duke University Special Collections
University of South Alabama Archives