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Authorship and Publication Quick Guide: Home

Authorship confers credit and recognition of intellectual contributions to works developed for publication, but also implies responsibility and accountability for that work.


from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors - ICMJE

• Discuss authorship before writing and agree on order of authors

• ICMJE states authors must:

      1.  Substantially contribute to conception, design, data acquisition or analysis AND

      2.  Help to draft the article, revise critically for intellectual content, AND

      3.  Approve the version to be published, AND

      4.  Agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work


• Acknowledge those who do not meet all authorship criteria

• Examples of activities that alone (without other contributions) do not qualify a contributor for authorship:

     o Acquisition of funding

     o General supervision of a research group or general administrative support

     o Collecting data

     o Mentoring

     o Writing assistance, technical editing, language editing, or proofreading

NOTE: Some journals have their own criteria regarding authorship or submission of previously published work


• Conference planners may insist that abstracts not be submitted elsewhere - read instructions

• Submission of reasonably, essentially or substantially different abstracts to multiple conferences is acceptable - ask whether the hypothesis, research question, experiments etc. are really different

• Submission of an abstract that has previously been published is self-plagiarism (see below)


• Gift authorship: Including an individual as an author who has not contributed to the study or manuscript

• Ghost authorship: Not including the individual who actually wrote the manuscript as an author, e.g., an industry employee who wrote a treatment guideline or clinical perspective and asked you to present for publication as your work

• Salami publication: Publishing one study in multiple "slices"

• Self-plagiarism: Republishing your own work


• Plagiarism: Appropriating the ideas, words, images, etc. of others and presenting as your own


from the Committee on Publication Ethics - COPE

• Negotiating authorship ( A score sheet for quantifying contributions to a project to determine order of authorship

• Negotiating order of authorship ( Authorship tiebreaker scorecard used when 2 or more people achieve the same score on the authorship determination score sheet


• NIH Guidelines for Authorship:

• DHHS Office of Research Integrity - Case studies for discussion on authorship and publication:

Clinical Librarian

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Clista Clanton
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Thank you to Dr. Mary Townsley for developing the content for this subject guide.